2LTE LJ78 Holset Turbo conversion, easy upgrade. (1 Viewer)

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Nov 16, 2019
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Allright guys,

Over this past year I have been reading up on this forum for different tips and tricks to gain extra power out of the 2LTE and thought i would share my experience, as I haven't seen it been done on any of these related forums. I obtained the truck in February, and in the saddest condition imaginable. 390,000 kilometers of poor servicing and neglect. I found oil throughout the intake system, a mixer of turbo seal failure and worn piston rings. After removing the turbo and taking it in for inspection at my local, I was quoted $800NZD to overhaul the turbo which was mostly labour for removing carbon deposits so $1500 later i had my self a clocked brand new holset HE200, with a 1 BAR wastegate welded in the correct position, a custom adapter plate which ill instruct you mostly on how to make it, how i got around making oil lines and deleting the coolant feed as it's an oil only turbo.

1: Turbo Adapter Plate

First you'll need a thick steel plate, from memory mine is about 2 inches (50mm) thick, and it must be cut to suit the flange size on the factory manifold. You'll then need to measure the inside diameter and shape of the manifold flange and cut the plate to suit. This could easily been done at a machine shop if you're not skilled or have the equipment to complete the job, at little expense. You'll then need to mark the bolt holes on the steel plate, matching the offset on the manifold and progressively drill them through, i wouldn't recommend doing this without a drill press because you most likely will fail. Next up you will need to purchase some cap screws, allan key or torx head. You need to measure the depth the original studs are screwed into the manifold and combine that with the thickness of your plate and this is how you know the length of the capscrew you require.

Once you have obtained your capscrews, measure the outer diameter of the capscrew head and then get a drill bit that matches that. Get a piece of tape, or cable tie etc, measure the length of the cap screw head and then mark it on the drill bit with the tape or cable tie. Drill the plate down the mounting bolt holes so the cap screws sit flush within the plate this method is called counter-sinking. You can grind down the cap screw head if you feel you are going to weaken the structure of the plate, as your holes will be close to the edge. Now your plate should bolt flush up against the manifold, with no protrusions on top of the flange.

Next we want to mark the holes on the plate that fit the mounting plate on the holset turbo, (from memory they're 8mm) smaller than the ct20 mounting studs. Tap the holes and install some studs, note the nuts have to be installed while holding the turbo up otherwise they wont fit between the tip of the stud and the turbo housing. The adapter plate must be installed and torqued to the manifold and then the turbo fitted afterwards as it will cover part of the capscrews.

I had the turbo clocked before installation to mimic the CT20 position, this will require re positioning of the wastegate (which will have to be welded to the inlet housing)

Now as for the exhaust i took the turbo to a CNC machinist and they traced the back and cut the flange to suit as the factory cummins exhaust flange is junk, it's a plate that covers the whole rear of the turbo with a 2.25" vband outlet in the center. I then tried to make an exhaust - going to leave it at tried, and then had the truck trailered and the exhaust fabricated professionally by some guys we use through work. it is difficult to get the exhaust directly down as it sits back further towards the firewall and goes over the chassis rail, as you can see with your standard exhaust. I used a 2.5" exhaust with a small resonator, not excessively noisy at all and sounds tough.

2. Oil Feeds

The oil feed is located directly above the oil filter on the oil cooler housing, i simply used an AN-3 braided line ran it out towards the R/H guard to avoid it rubbing on anything then p clamped it and routed it to the top of the turbo and screwed it in. Looks untidy, could be done better, but it works and i drive it 32 kilometers a day so i'm happy.

For the drain i used Aeroflow AN fittings, which include generic drain flanges and include a recess with an o'ring for a gasket. These are pricey, but work great and are very time conservative. it has a threaded drain so you can screw on other AN fittings. I found that you need to make sure when installing these multifit flanges, that your washers don't touch the the drain stem otherwise the flange wont pull up correctly when you tighten and leak like there's no tomorrow. I then used an extension fitting to lengthen the drain past the bottom of the compressor housing and then used a 3/4 or 19.1mm hose barb, i found that fitting was bulky and hit the compressor housing why i used the extension, it you're a better general engineer than i am it'd recommend just fabricating a steel drain, much cheaper. Then steadily force a 3/4" oil proof hose or 19mm, and hose clamp it on this will then fit directly over your drain coming out of the block.

3. Air intake
I simply used the factory air intake pipe from the air filter housing, it's a stretch to fit but does the job. Now the sloppy part i did was the compressor outlet, being a 2.25" vband i simply just fitted a 2.25 - 2" reduced and used a hose clamp over the vband and the original "EFI" pipe. I only did it to get it running and driving so i could test the set up but it has ended up working ok so i've been driving round with it over the last 3 or 4 months until i pull the engine out for an overhaul, then ill fabricate some brackets and mount a top mount inter cooler while it's on the stand. What i would recommend doing in place of this , is buy a 2.25" vband and welding it to a 2" pipe with just enough length to fit a silicone joiner and hose clamp and then joining it to the "EFI" pipe, this would work perfectly.


The truck has so much more power, it has even reduced the revs when on the open road at 100ks. Plus it makes cool turbo noises, excellent for towing etc. Makes boost from 1900rpm onwards with no fuel adjustments, and hits wastegate pressure at around 2900rpm. Definitely recommend it. Don't ask why i did this before doing the engine overhaul, you're probably eye rolling that i would put a turbo on an engine with a compression leak but i just felt like taking the challenge of putting the turbo on first and will so be make in the garage once i have my other vehicle on the road again (they get fixed one after the other) any questions feel free to ask. Sorry about the lack of photos, never saw myself contributing to a forum at the time.

Cheers

Arnie

holset.jpg
 

GTSSportCoupe

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AWESOME!! Thanks so much for sharing this. I have always suspected the 2LTE would greatly benefit from a well sized modern turbo; and you have confirmed my suspicions. Now I'm much more motivated to put on a turbo I picked up for my 2LTE a while back.

I can only imagine how good it'll go once you've rebuilt your motor and tuned the fuel/boost a bit! You'll have to keep us up-to-date as you continue with your rebuild and upgrades.
 
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Thanks mate, the HE200 actually has a smaller exhaust wheel and a larger compressor turbine than the CT20 if you're concerned about suitability.

I use a pump injection shop through work, who I've seen mentioned frequently on a few of these forum sites so I'll get into contact with them about doing a fuel upgrade.

I just read your article yesterday about tricking the ECU with that overboost light, I was thinking about going to a mechanical pump, but perhaps we could come up with some alternative to limitations of the EFI
 
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It'll be impossible to do unless the mounting flange is a lot smaller than the CT20, what's your plan? The turbo shop I used sells a package for the shim heads than uses a manifold with a td04 flange
 

GTSSportCoupe

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It'll be impossible to do unless the mounting flange is a lot smaller than the CT20, what's your plan? The turbo shop I used sells a package for the shim heads than uses a manifold with a td04 flange

I've got some good friends who are machinists. Not sure if it's possible until I try; but I thought there was a good chance. Will build a log manifold if I have to I suppose.
 

GTSSportCoupe

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How do I find your thread about advancing your pump timing?

Don't advance the timing. I've tried and it just makes the motor ping and loose power. Creates high cylinder pressures from the diesel igniting too early; which is really hard on everything.

In case you want to know anyway: The way to advance it is simply putting a 2.5kOhm potentiometer in place of the timing resistor that is on the side of the pump. The wires can be accessed at the ECU above the glove box. The pinout/wire colors are in the Japanese schematics (posted here in the forums). You'd want to measure the timing resistor on the side of the pump first so you know your start value; then you can adjust from there.

Advancing the pump by turning it only advances timing on startup before the computer takes over. The computer compares the crank sensor timing to the Ne sensor (pump timing) and corrects it as needed to achieve the injection timing it desires.

The way to make more power is adding more air (which you've done), and then adding more fuel. If you add beyond 15psi boost pressure the computer goes into fuel cut, so you need to trick it by bleeding off some boost (per the other thread you referenced).

Adding more fuel is simply turning up the spill control valve. This turns up fuel mostly in the mid to high rev range, which is what you want, as that is when you're usually in boost. Adjust the spill valve screw in for more fuel and out for less. Careful if you turn it more than about 3/4 in you can get close to run-away. Rev the engine when parked to test for this. If the rpm's hang a bit then you're getting close. Turn the screw back out a bit. Mine went into runaway at about 1 turn in. I turned the screw out while the motor was screaming in my ear to stop it, ahha.

You can put a 2.5kOhm potentiometer in place of the fuel resistor on the side of the pump. Again, wire directly at the ECU. This adjusts fuel lower in the rev range primarily, but does seem to impact the higher rev range too.

Anyhow, make sure you monitor EGT's etc. as you start playing with the fuel. And an intercooler would be a very good investment if you're going to take full advantage of your new turbo (high boost).

The 10mm pump on these motors can provide enough fuel for about 140 crank hp or so. Beyond that you'll need to upgrade to a 12mm pump. I believe you could probably just fit the plunger/head from a 1KZTE pump (which is 12mm) and that would take things to the next level. I've heard of 1KZT's making 180whp; so fuel won't be a limit anymore!

If you want to understand your 2LTE EFI system inside out, read this manual:

And here are the manuals for the mechanical end of the motor:
RM520E (Main for 2L, 3L & 5L engines)
Dropbox - 2L 3L 5L ENGINE RM520E.pdf

RM582E (Supplement for 2L, 2L-T, 3L and 5L engines)
https://www.dropbox.com/s/1joci2o0xtg6ujv/2L%2C2L-T%2C3L%2C5L ENGINE SUP. RM582E.pdf?dl=0
 
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Adding more fuel is simply turning up the spill control valve. This turns up fuel mostly in the mid to high rev range, which is what you want, as that is when you're usually in boost. Adjust the spill valve screw in for more fuel and out for less. Careful if you turn it more than about 3/4 in you can get close to run-away. Rev the engine when parked to test for this. If the rpm's hang a bit then you're getting close. Turn the screw back out a bit. Mine went into runaway at about 1 turn in. I turned the screw out while the motor was screaming in my ear to stop it, ahha.

In regards to adding to much fuel and having a run away scenario. Is there any harm in just shutting the motor down at this point? after reading that in your last thread im currently installing a fuel cut (similar to what i have used in the past for lpg duel fuel set ups in other cars) so if it goes into run away i can always just cut the fuel and stop the motor on the spot (while in neutral or park, not while in drive). would this run the chance of damaging anything though? Figure at the least its a good little hidden kill switch on the wagon as its becoming popular for old 4x4's to go missing now in NZ.
 

GTSSportCoupe

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In regards to adding to much fuel and having a run away scenario. Is there any harm in just shutting the motor down at this point? after reading that in your last thread im currently installing a fuel cut (similar to what i have used in the past for lpg duel fuel set ups in other cars) so if it goes into run away i can always just cut the fuel and stop the motor on the spot (while in neutral or park, not while in drive). would this run the chance of damaging anything though? Figure at the least its a good little hidden kill switch on the wagon as its becoming popular for old 4x4's to go missing now in NZ.

I'm not sure it'll actually shut off using the key once it's in runaway. That's the whole point; the ECU has lost control of the spill valve.

You could have a fuel cut before the injection pump, but there is a lot of fuel in a rotary pump, so might be a while before it shuts off. Same thing if someone steals it; they'll get a fair ways before running out of fuel.
 
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ill let you know how it goes, this is the unit im putting in, Lovato Petrol Shut Off Valve

as it will go in the fuel line before the fuel filter i figure the unit should stop the motor once you hit the switch as there will be no vaccume for the line to keep pulling fuel/ keep the motor running. I may be wrong but thought there was essentially one of these on the manual injection pumps which locks the fuel off when you turn the key off. So it would be the same principle but on an independent switch if there was an issue with the ECU. Was hoping this would be a good security measure to avoid the truck getting into run away... can update later in the week as i have it all installed, just need to run the power to the switch and test it all (my work on the wagon is normally in short stints between baby naps so takes a little while to complete tasks lately)
 
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The plunger sits in a bore, you'd have to machine the pump by that stage it would be easier just to swap a 1kz pump over. Yeah intercooler is next on the list, cut a hole in the Bonet and too mount it lol
 

GTSSportCoupe

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The plunger sits in a bore, you'd have to machine the pump by that stage it would be easier just to swap a 1kz pump over. Yeah intercooler is next on the list, cut a hole in the Bonet and too mount it lol

You can swap both the plunger and pump head from a 1KZTE. Might have to swap delivery valves. Also 2LTE uses the same injector nozzles as the 1KZTE.

You could try a whole 1KZTE pump, but I'm not sure how compatible the electronics are....
 
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A VGT turbo requires an ECU with supported out puts to control it, I'm a truck mechanic and it's common for these VNT turbos to fail prematurely either the veins disintegrate or the actuator fails. They sound good in theory and they may work well driving a later model common rail around town but by no means do they surpass the common turbocharger design
 

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