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Isuzu 4HE1TC into FJ62

Discussion in 'Diesel Tech and 24 volts Systems' started by astr, Feb 20, 2009.

  1. astr

    astr

    Messages:
    756
    Location:
    Michigan/Costa Rica
    I’ve finally started on my transplant project and plan to document my progress here. Because I have too many other commitments, the progress will be slow at best so be patient.

    My plan is to replace the 3FE in my stock FJ62 (Iron Annie) with a reliable and fuel efficient diesel. I eventually want to drive down to Costa Rica and leave the truck there as my local transportation. My engine selection was primarily dictated by the availability of engines and parts both in the US and in Central America. Because of ease of conversion, a Toyota engine was my first choice but since they were never sold directly in the US, I decided on Isuzu as they are widely available both in the US and Central America, have an extensive dealer network in both places and are considered to be a reliable engine.

    My first thought was to use the Isuzu 4BD1T or 4BD2T that others have successfully installed in the 60 series. This past summer, I had a chance to ride in 88TLC’s truck and was very impressed with his conversion.

    I decided against the 4BD1/2 swap as it would throw additional complexity into the equation by requiring custom adapters to mate the engine to the drivetrain and would require a transmission from still a third source, not Toyota or Isuzu. I could have used an NV4500 manual transmission with dieseltim’s adapter to mate it to the engine and an AA adapter to mate the NV4500 to the FJ62’s split T-case or could have used dieselswapper’s adapter to mate the engine to one of several GM automatics and an AA adapter to mate the GM auto to the split T-case. Way too much complexity to support in Central America!

    In the 4BD1 thread, theSherpa pointed out the similarities between the A440F automatic transmission that is standard on the FJ62 and the Aisin AW450 transmission which comes mated to the Isuzu 4HE1 in the NPR trucks. This was intriguing so we did some quick measurements and comparisons and indeed it looked like it might be feasible to put together a A440F/AW450 hybrid automatic that would connect the 4HE1 to the split t-case. Further research has convinced me that this may not only be possible but may be a very desirable approach so this is the direction that I am heading:

    ISUZU 4HE!-TC engine à AW450/A440F hybrid transmission à Toyota split t-case. Sound simple!

    An introduction of the participants is in order: The recipient, Iron Annie, a stock 1990 Fj62 with 220K on the clock, and the donor, a wrecked 2003 Isuzu NPR chassis 80K on the clock, with a good running 4HE1 mated to an AW450 transmission. As a bonus, the AW450 has a PTO that might be suitable to power a winch.

    Attached Files:

  2. coog

    coog

    Messages:
    26
    May God bless you.You know you are in un-charted waters and could easily fall off the face of the Earth.I know I will be watching wiith great interest.Good Luck!
  3. rtarh2o

    rtarh2o

    Messages:
    936
    Location:
    NE Texas
    Sounds interesting, how about the electronics? The beauty of the 4bd series was the lack of electronics for us of average skills.
    Keep us posted, I still have a 97 that someday I want to do something with.
    Rusty
  4. Michael Hanson

    Michael Hanson

    Messages:
    7,376
    Location:
    Plano texas
    Good engine,they go forever.How much was the wrecked Isuzu? Mike
  5. PurpleFJ62

    PurpleFJ62

    Messages:
    473
    Location:
    Dexter Michigan
    good luck man! Lots of pictures!
  6. Dougal

    Dougal

    Messages:
    4,282
    Location:
    Kiwiland
    Subscribing.
  7. ThePookieBear

    ThePookieBear

    Messages:
    869
    Location:
    Wichita, KS.
    Nice!! I too shall subscribe. :). Any parallel threads on 4BTswaps? I'll be especially interested in what route you will take on the hybrid tranny as we have discussed that before. (I'm Michael Osoba on 4btswaps.) Congrats sir. :)
  8. Kief

    Kief

    Messages:
    4,056
    Location:
    Southwest Oregon
    Mmmm.. very interesting..
  9. astr

    astr

    Messages:
    756
    Location:
    Michigan/Costa Rica
    I could very well end up embarrasing myself on this one! It won't be the first time and I'm sure, not the last :grinpimp:

    The electronics on the 4HE1 are not much more complex than on the 4BD2. I've run my 4HE1 with the ecu disabled and it seems to start and run just fine.

    It was sort of a package deal so it is hard to say how much was specifically for the truck.
  10. astr

    astr

    Messages:
    756
    Location:
    Michigan/Costa Rica
    The Plan

    The Plan: Try to assemble the AW450/A440F hybrid transmission and test it on the NPR chassis first before pulling the FJ apart. The reason for this is that everything is very accessible on the NPR. Surprisingly, the NPR should be a decent predictor of the expected performance in the FJ. The NPR weighs 5,100 lbs, has 31” tires and a 5.375 rear axle. I spent some time getting the NPR drivable, maybe not suitable for a public highway, but it will work fine on the private road adjacent to the shop. I can booty-fab mounts, etc. easily and quickly to try different configurations, and, since the NPR is going to the junk yard after I’m finished, I don’t care how much I hack up the truck. If the hybrid transmission project fails, I will still have a drivable FJ.

    If I’m successful at creating the hybrid transmission, I’ll pull the engine in the FJ62 and see what I’m up against trying to make the 4HE1 fit. I’d like to use the stock rear cross member in the stock position if I can as that would keep the engine weight as far back as possible. I’d like to start with no lift. Depending on what ends up interfering, a SOA and/or body lift may be in order. Currently, my biggest concern is interference as a result of the location of the starter on the 4HE1.

    A little data on the 4HE1TC: The 4HE1TC is a 4.75 liter (110 mm bore x 125 mm stroke) direct-injected 4 cylinder engine that was the standard diesel engine installed in the Isuzu NPR trucks from 1999 through 2004. They were also sold under the Chevy and GMC badge. As installed in the NPR’s, they are turbocharged and intercooled.

    In stock form, the engine is rated at 175 hp @ 2700 rpm and 347 ft-lb @ 2000 rpm. It is similar in size and weight to the 4BD1/2 engines that have been swapped successfully into Cruisers.

    All the US versions were 12V. Although there is an ECU, the engine uses the standard inline IP licensed from Bosch. The ECU seems to be relegated to ancillary functions such as fine tuning the timing, controlling the glow plugs, activating the exhaust brake, an blinking the “Check Engine” light. The engine seems to start and run fine with the ECU disabled.

    The engine is an overhead cam design with two valves per cylinder. The cam is driven by gears rather than timing belts. As with the 4BD1/2, the pistons have oil jets for cooling and run in replaceable dry sleeves. Unlike the 4BD1/2’s, the individual crank bearing caps are replaced with one large ladder-like casting that Isuzu claims results in a much more rigid bottom end. The back end of the engine is totally different from the 4BD1/2’s so bell housings are NOT interchangeable between the two series.

    Advantages of the 4HE1TC:

    ¨ 20 more hp and 130 ft-lb more torque than the 3FE
    ¨ IP has “THE SCREW” so fueling should be easily tweaked
    ¨ Gear-driven overhead cam design
    ¨ Heavy-duty construction designed to push 18,000 lb GVW trucks around shouldn’t have much trouble with a 5,000 lb FJ.
    ¨ Exhaust on right side (opposite side to 3FE) so turbo won’t interfere with master cylinder and steering.
    ¨ More current design than the 4BD1/2 so parts should be available longer.
    ¨ Relatively quiet and smooth for a 4 cyl diesel though not as quiet or smooth as the 3FE (subjective)
    ¨ Direct injection so should expect better starting, performance, and economy than IDI diesels.

    Disadvantages of the 4HE1TC:

    ¨ The gear train that drives the cam and IP is at the rear of the engine between the last cylinder and the flywheel, which is why, I believe, the starter is positioned alongside the transmission rather than alongside the engine. This starter position will potentially interfere with the fire wall and/or floor and/or transmission tunnel in the FJ62.
    ¨ The exhaust is on the right side, opposite that of the 3FE, which may cause some routing problems because of conflicts with the front differential, front drive shaft, and t-case. This should be solvable as the 3B’s have their exhaust on the same side as the 4HE1.

    Following are pics of a 4HE1TC with the AW450 transmission attached. These are not of my engine but they provide a better overall view than I could get with mine as it is still in the NPR. Note the position of the starter in the 3rd photo.

    Attached Files:

  11. PurpleFJ62

    PurpleFJ62

    Messages:
    473
    Location:
    Dexter Michigan
    does this engine have a removable flywheel housing? Or is there only one pattern on the block, like more automotive engines. That is one thing I could never figure out, why does the SAE go to the trouble of making these standards if no one is going to use them?

    Just imagine being able to piece together whatever drivetrain you wanted.....
    Are wiring diagrams available for this engine? What imputs do you think the ECU needs to properly work the glow plugs?

    cheers

  12. astr

    astr

    Messages:
    756
    Location:
    Michigan/Costa Rica
    There is a rear portion to the block similar to the 4BDx engines, however, in addition to housing the flywheel, it also houses the whole gear train for the cam, IP, oil pump, and power steering pump.

    That's the way it works on big trucks.

    Full factory manuals, including detailed wiring diagrams, can be downloaded from Master Portal - forums.bauchan.org/Downloads
    The glow plug system is actually simpler than on the 4BD2: The glow plugs are either on or off. The glow plug timing is determined by the ECM based on input from the engine coolant sensor. A Wilson switch could be substituted.

    Hey PurpleFJ62 - You are just down the road from me (AA)
  13. ozwallaby

    ozwallaby

    Messages:
    323
    Location:
    Qld, Australia
    That starter is definitely a fly in the ointment... it may not be as much of a problem here in OZ with right hand drive, maybe just tig a jam tin thru the firewall in the right place :hillbilly:... I think this is about the right capacity (4.5+ litre) for a reasonably powerful landcruiser. Also like your thinking on useing the NPR as a development mule.. might not be pretty, but it'll do the job... :cool::cool::cool::cool:
  14. astr

    astr

    Messages:
    756
    Location:
    Michigan/Costa Rica
    A440F vs. AW450

    Again, the approach that I am planning to take is to create a hybrid A440F/AW450 transmission that will mate the 4HE1Tc to the Toyota split T-case.

    A little data on the two transmissions: Both transmissions are manufactured by Aisin, a Japanese company (not Allison – no relationship), both are 4-speed automatics with 4th being an overdrive. Both have removable bell housings.

    The A440F was installed in 88-90 US spec FJ62’s and 90-92 US spec FJ80’s. Overseas it was also used in some Toyota Coaster busses. The gear ratios are:

    1st - 2.950
    2nd - 1.530
    3rd - 1.000
    4th (OD) - 0.717
    Reverse - 2.678


    Shifting control is entirely hydraulic – no electronics are involved. Throttle position information is provided to the valve body via a mechanical cable that runs between the engine throttle body and the transmission. Road speed information is obtained from a hydro-mechanical governor mounted on the transmission output shaft.

    The torque converter incorporates an internal lockup clutch, which when activated, eliminates any slippage in the torque converter and insures that full engine power is transmitted to the transmission. With the standard valve body, this lockup only occurs in 4th gear (OD). With Rodney’s Extreme Valve Body, lockup can occur both in 3rd and 4th gears.


    The AW450 was first installed in the Isuzu NPR truck around 1999 and coincided with the switch from the 4BD2T to the 4HE1TC engines. The AW450 was also mated to the 4HK1TC during the first few year of this engine’s production. The AW450 was also used in Mitsubishi and Nissan trucks. The gear ratios are:

    · 1st: 3.02
    · 2nd: 1.55
    · 3rd: 1.00
    · O/D: 0.70
    · Reverse: ???

    The AW450 is an electronically-controlled transmission and won’t operate without the external TCM. Information is obtained by the TCM from electronic sensors such as the throttle position sensor, engine speed sensor, the vehicle speed sensor, and others. Although many are skeptical about the virtues of electronically-controlled transmissions, they do have the potential to provided better performance and economy than their hydro-mechanical counterparts.

    Like the A440F, the AW450 uses a torque converter with an internal lockup clutch. The TCM will however activate the lockup clutch in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th gears. As the lockup is activated electrically, it appears feasible to provide an override switch that would allow you to manually control the torque converter lockup, even in 1st gear. Although I haven’t figured it out completely, it appears that the TCM coordinates torque converted lockup with exhaust brake activation thereby maximizing engine braking.

    Following are pics of an A440F and AW450 transmission. The AW450 definitely looks to be a derivative of the A440F. All the mounting bosses of the A440F are retained on the AW450 case, although some new ones appear to have been added to the AW450. The cooler lines and the various sensors are in the same locations. The gear selector levers are mounted on a shaft that is in the same location on both transmissions but the levers are attached to the opposite sides of the transmissions. This may not be a big deal as the shaft passes completely through the transmission case so the shift lever location could be changed. The bolt patterns for the bell housings, tail housings (T-case adapter on the A440F), and the oil pans seem to be the same. The transmission dipstick tube on the AW450 exits the oil pan on the opposite side of the motor to that of the A440F. If that becomes a problem, then the pans could be swapped. It may be desirable anyway to use the pan off of the A440F as it looks to be of bigger capacity plus it has the “skid plate”.

    The first pic is of the AW450, the second is of the A440F. “A” is the location of the oil cooler line connections. “B” is the location of the ATF temperature sensor. “C” are mounting bosses. On the A440F, one is used to mount the T-case Hi-Lo shift lever whereas on the AW450 they are both used to mount the shift cable bracket. “D” is the shift lever shaft. The position sensor switch and the shift lever are on opposite sided of the two transmissions but the shaft location is the same in the case.

    The third pic shows both transmissions from the front. Clearly the bell housing-to-engine bolt patterns and the torque converter to flywheel bolt patterns are different.

    Attached Files:

  15. astr

    astr

    Messages:
    756
    Location:
    Michigan/Costa Rica
    One more picture. This pic shows the pto that came with the AW450. It is in constant mesh with a gear in the transmission. There is a hydraulically-actuated clutch pack in the pto that engages the output shaft. An external solenoid valve controls the pressure to the clutch pack. I sure wish the unit wasn’t physically so big!

    Attached Files:

    • pto.jpg
      pto.jpg
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      54.3 KB
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  16. astr,

    Thanks for the pics and descriptions. I am looking forward to seeing your progress, along with problems/solutions.

    That PTO is a honker! I'd certainly understand deleting it to save room, but as you say having a PTO is a bonus.

    Your test platform looks fine to me, shoot it's in better shape than the junk I drive.

    Cheers,

    Rick
  17. ThePookieBear

    ThePookieBear

    Messages:
    869
    Location:
    Wichita, KS.
    Okay... Hold on I'm bracing myself to be schooled... :).

    But... I thought that the bolt patterns were the same... Is it just that the bellhousing adapters are the same bolt pattern? I'm a bit confused. :). But, thats why I'm not doing this. :). Good work sir. I'm just lost is all. Ha ha.
  18. astr

    astr

    Messages:
    756
    Location:
    Michigan/Costa Rica
    The bolt pattern where the bell housing bolts to the transmissioin body is the same, not where the bell housing bolts to the engine. So, the two bell housings can be swapped. Hopefully the next two posts will clarify.
    Last edited: Feb 27, 2009
  19. astr

    astr

    Messages:
    756
    Location:
    Michigan/Costa Rica
    Mix and Match Time

    I see two possible approaches to creating the AW450/A440F hybrid transmission:
    ¨ Use the A440F as the core transmission and change the front end components (bell housing, torque converter, pump, etc) to allow it to bolt up to the 4HE1
    ¨ Use the AW450 as the core transmission and change the rear end (output shaft, tail housing, etc) to allow it to bolt up to the Toyota split T-case.

    I’ll try Option A first as it appears to be the easiest. Potentially, this could be accomplished without removing the transmission from the FJ62.

    The first pic is of the two bell housings. The bolt patterns where the bell housings bolt to the transmission case are identical. The AW450 has a couple of additional locator dowels which shouldn’t be a factor as the center opening of the bell housing is a tight fit to the pump housing and will locate the bell radially.

    The second pic shows the transmission side of both torque converters. The pump drive sleeves are of identical diameters and the cutouts that engage the pump are also the same.

    The third pic is comparison of the two input shafts. Diameters and spline counts are the same. The lengths are slightly different; however, I don’t think this difference will be relevant.

    Attached Files:

  20. astr

    astr

    Messages:
    756
    Location:
    Michigan/Costa Rica
    And now to put it all together.

    The first pic shows the AW450 torque converter mounted on the AW450 transmission. I’ve left the bell housing off so that it is clear how close to the face of the transmission case the torque converter sits.

    The second pic shows the AW450 torque converter mounted on the A440F case. It slid on the input shaft of the A440F as easily as it went on the AW450. The distance between the torque converter and the transmission case is the same. It may appear that the torque converter sits closer to the case, but that is because the A440F pump housing doesn’t protrude out as far.

    The third pic is of the AW450 bell housing mounted on the A440F transmission. Nice tight fit!

    Attached Files:

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