1KZ-T.. No longer TE (Mitsu 4m40 pump swap)

Discussion in 'Diesel Tech and 24 volts Systems' started by bloc, Nov 25, 2011.

  1. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    Hello all,

    So, as promised, I'm getting a thread started detailing my ongoing pump-swap. I'm close to getting finished and have a few pics to highlight things. Be warned though, I'm not quite done with this.

    The vehicle was originally a 1994 4runner, and before this swap it had a 1KZ-TE engine, R151F 5spd transmission, and an EVO 8 front mount intercooler.

    1KZ-TEs installed in surfs (KZN130s specifically) used the Denso ECDV3 electronic injection pump.
    Pros: dynamic timing. (that's it)
    Cons: almost zero diagnostic capability, obscure technology that most pump shops in the states refuse to mess with, $1k chip required for significant power increases, no elegant way to trick the ECU into knowing there is a FMIC and make the appropriate fuel and timing adjustments.

    The pump is based on a bosch VE pump case, using a 12mm plunger and what is apparently a pretty mild cam-plate. From the factory the injectors are calibrated for 150kpa

    4M40 is a 2.8 liter mitsubishi turbodiesel engine, with a factory intercooler. It is indirect injected, also with 150kpa opening pressure. It uses a Zexel mechanical injection pump, with boost compensator.
    Pros:TONS of info available on pump mods & troubleshooting, capable of making repairs/adjustments with screwdriver/wrench, factory boost curve set up for intercooling (not sure how significant this change is)
    Cons: slight machining (if it can really be called that) on the pump case required, other slight changes to engine config required, throttle lever needs to be pulled, as opposed to pushed on 1KZ-T mechanical pump (so parts can't be directly interchanged)

    This Zexel pump is a nearly direct knock off of the Bosch VE rotary pump. About the only difference is the casting logo in the case, and the fact that the throttle lever pulls instead of push. It uses an 11mm plunger, which on the surface sounds like it won't make as much power, but when you look at guys in Oz swapping these onto 1KZ-T engines to make more power... it's all in the cam-plate (I hope). Either way, the 4M40 has less displacement, but nearly identical hp and torque figures to the 1KZ-T, so I'm not worried about the 1mm less diameter on the plunger.

    Anyway.. I ordered my 4M40 pump from ebay UK. Search for "Pajero pump", and look specifically for pumps that came on 2.8liter Pajeros. The 2.5 was an older chassis and I don't know if they will fit. I didn't want to spend $1k, yet I also didn't want to get the cheapest thing I could find. So I ordered a relatively clean looking pump for about $250, with about $50 in shipping. I got the thing home and went to the local Bosch shop to get a seal kit. Front seal and complete oring kit: $20, in stock. If I had asked for the same for my 1KZ-TE they would have given me a blank stare.

    I opened the pump up to check internal condition, and it was nearly flawless. The cam-plate and rollers were perfect. The only sign of usage was the slight marks on the inner pump case from the timing ring rocking back and forth. For a GREAT writeup on rebuilding a bosch VE pump, go here: Bosch diesel injection pump rebuild

    Then I set about removing the factory Denso pump. I had heard horror stories about getting these things off. Guys have had to remove the radiator, A/C condenser, install a puller, heat the gear, then hammer the crap out of the shaft (ramming the timing gear into the back of the housing) to get it dislodged. 15+ years of a tapered shaft with thermal cycling.. yeah. I decided to over build my puller. The first pic is of my puller installed. You may notice a large ball bearing between the thrust bolt and the pump shaft. This is intended to fit into a detent on the end of the shaft and keep from tearing it up with all of the force. Toyota's puller only calls for 2 tension bolts, I went with 4, as some people have said it seems like with only 2 the threads were going to pull out.
    Second pic shows it from a different angle.
    It took what seems like a lot of torque, but the shaft popped out without any hammering or heat. And since I kept the puller low-profile I didn't even have to remove the radiator.
    Third pic is Denso pump, for reference.
    IMG_1020.jpg IMG_1023.jpg IMG_1025.jpg
  2. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    Pumps side-by-side. Notice different routing of the fuel supply and return lines.

    Also, on the Zexel pump you can see a cover plate installed on the side. That hole originally had a cold-start advance mechanism installed. This huge apparatus used coolant lines and a wax pellet to advance timing slightly when the engine was cold, as well as bump the idle up a tiny bit. The whole assembly was too large to leave room for my power steering lines, as well as got in the way of the 1KZ-TE fuel supply line, so it had to go. My local Bosch shop gave me a cover plate for the hole.. it's the same plate that covers the non-spring side of the timing piston bore.

    I'm running out of time to work on this writeup tonight, so expect more over the next few days.

    -Justin
    IMG_1027.jpg IMG_1028.jpg
  3. Great info there Bloc, thanks for the post.

    You indicate the TE was installed as early as '94 in the 130 series 4Runner. I have a 2001 KZN185L with the non-electronic pump (1KZ-T). I am to assume then that the electronic version did not evolve from the mechanical unit??? and that the two types are made concurrent?

    Rick
  4. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    The two were made concurrently.. though I'm not sure you could say the -TE "evolved". While the lift pump, timing control, and fuel delivery systems are the same (or very close), the fuel quantity control is completely different on the -TE Denso pumps from just about anything else made in the VE line.

    Supposedly the electronic pumps can make more power and get better efficiency due to their dynamic timing.. thing is, if the whole system isn't working optimally you have no way of knowing.

    What I do know is that they did make -T and -TE vehicles side by side in some markets (though usually it would be the difference between a 4runner/Surf and a land cruiser, so the market was probably there for the more "simple" mechanical pumps even though they made less power)
  5. Justin,

    I just did a search and Wikipedia has the same HP and torque numbers for the T and TE. Do you happen to know the real figures?

    The light research I have done in the past 30 minutes indicates that some markets may have higher emission standards and only accepted the TE. Apparently if the vehicle has an automatic tranny you get the TE as well.

    Cheers and best wishes with the swap.

    Rick
  6. Dougal

    Dougal

    Messages:
    4,423
    Location:
    Kiwiland
    Nice writeup. Is the remaining plug on the 4M40 pump just for fuel shutoff or are there other functions too?
  7. crushers

    crushers post ho SILVER Star

    Messages:
    22,270
    Location:
    Tara Ontario
    your doing good Bloc, look forward to more info as you move ahead.

    i never knew you needed a puller to get the pump off... interesting.
  8. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    At peak, yeah. But, if you look at a dyno plot the -TE would have more mid-range torque/hp on account of its dynamic timing, and would in theory get more mileage with the same amount of power.
    In theory.

    The bit about emissions and the automatic makes sense...

    The big black plug has wires for the fuel cut solenoid, the tach pickup (simple VR sensor getting signal from the teeth on the governor gear), and the weird mitsubishi fuel bypass solenoid, which is the green cap protruding backward from under the boost compensator. I'll detail that more later.

    Yeah, and Like I said, people often have a lot of trouble getting the original pumps out.
  9. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    Ok.. back at it.

    So a few modifications are needed to make this fit on a 1KZ.

    Mitsubishi used an odd fuel supply line system on this pump. I'm not entirely sure of the purpose, and there are really only 2 possibilities, but here's my interpretation of it.

    Volkswagens have a thermostatic bypass built into the fuel filter that allows diesel fuel coming out of the pump to re-enter the fuel filter then pass back into the inlet of the pump, at least until the extra fuel is coming out of the pump warm enough to not need the bypass. This keeps the fuel in the pump as warm as possible.

    Mitsubishi has installed a bypass solenoid into the outlet of the pump. When given +12v, it allows fuel to flow into a port that Ts into the fuel pump inlet. In my thinking anyway, they had this system on a timer that allowed the fuel that would normally return to the tank be fed to the inlet and help warm the pump.

    Another possibility, and I forgot to measure the orifice sizes, is that the "second"/bypass outlet has a smaller hole also. This would in theory provide more back pressure within the pump, which should give more timing advance whenever the solenoid is activated.

    All of this requires a pretty complicated fuel supply/return hard line, which is in the first and second pics.
    The third pic is the special outlet solenoid.
    2011-11-18_14-03-41_394.jpg 2011-11-18_14-04-41_47.jpg 2011-11-18_14-04-53_186.jpg
  10. IanB

    IanB SILVER Star

    Messages:
    1,304
    Location:
    Winnipeg, MB
    Very interested in this, thanks for sharing!
  11. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    Here is a page with some more detailed photos on the fuel recirculation system. I'm not sure I agree with all of his analysis, but either way the photos are good toward the bottom: Mitsubishi Delica fuel system - Biopowered

    This setup won't work without modification on the 1KZ. The fuel supply line running along the engine side of the pump gets in the way of the 1KZ dipstick tube, and the back end of it (where the return line Ts into the supply line) hits a coolant hose nipple coming out from the cover over the oil cooler on the 1KZ block.

    My initial reaction was to just remove the whole system, but to my knowledge they calibrate the pump timing advance curve on an individual basis, and with the orifice in the outlet solenoid being the primary means to control pump case pressure and therefore timing, I decided to leave the solenoid and modify the line.

    I don't have pics, but I cut the T in the fuel supply line about a half inch from the banjo fitting and temporarily capped it with rubber fuel hose and a plug. It would be smarter long-term to braze this outlet shut, and that is what I plan to do. Without the solenoid energized the pump will try to send most of the excess fuel through the other leg of the banjo fitting, right out the fuel return line like a normal fuel pump. The only real drawback is the extra large solenoid and banjo fitting taking up valuable real estate on the side of the engine.

    I then used the fuel supply line from my 1KZ-TE pump, which bolted right on to the 4M40 pump.

    Speaking of the outlet bypass solenoid, it is big enough that it requires moving the factory coolant line going from the oil cooler cover to the throttle body. I had already installed an intercooler and moved my throttle body, so this mod was done anyway... but it looks like it would be required to fit the 4M40 pump. The lower coolant hose can be simply bent up and back to the other nipple below the intake manifold.

    Other slight tweaks to the 4m40 pump:
    Remove the pump support bracket on the bottom of the pump
    Remove the harness/fuel line support bracket on the back of the pump
    Remove the cold start advance module and cover the hole
    Remove the Mitsu TPS module, and clean the pump of random support brackets for the module and fuel lines
    On my engine I have an intercooler pipe running very close to the pump, so I removed the factory Mitsu idle stop bracket, and cut the leg hanging off the bottom of the throttle arm that is pushed by the cold-start module to raise the idle
    Since I removed the factory idle stop, I got a normal Bosch VE idle stop screw

    That clears the way for the 4M40 pump to be physically installed, but the fun isn't over there.

    I had trouble figuring out what to do to time the pump. I couldn't source timing specs for the 1KZ-T, plus they may not be valid with the difference in plunger diameter. With the similarities between the 4M40 and 1KZ-T (2.8L IDI TD/3.0L IDI TD) I decided to use the 4M40 timing specs as a starting point.

    In the 4M40 manual there are a range of specifications, depending on market and other factors. They look for .039" plunger lift at 7*ATDC for a 2001 Pajero Turbo non-EGR engine, 6*ATDC for 94-96 Pajero "for EFTA" (emissions thing?), and numbers ranging from 9-12* for Turbo Pajeros from different markets, mostly with EGR.

    Seeing as my engine does not have a functioning EGR system anymore, I went for the 7* number. Thing is, with no modifications the pump can only be advanced to hit the specified plunger lift at around 15*ATDC. This is retarded enough to keep it off the scale of ANY published timing figure, so something had to be done.

    I removed the pump and enlarged the slotted mounting holes. To get the 8* I was looking for, I had to increase the size of the holes .25" in a clockwise direction, facing the front of the pump. I didn't have a die grinder bit small enough for this, so I just used a .25" drill bit chucked up in the die grinder.

    .25" got me to the specified lift at exactly 7*ATDC. This tilts the pump toward the engine quite a bit, making the engine-side mounting nut quite difficult to get to. QUITE difficult. I actually had to find 2-12mm box-end wrenches that had slightly different indexing in the "box" end, and alternate wrenches to get the nut tight. Fortunately I won't need to mess with it much.

    Fuel lines bolted up very well, though you could tell the fuel pump was tilted pretty well.

    I bolted the timing belt system back together, hooked up the fuel lines, and primed the pump with a mity-vac. I then ran a simple wire to the fuel cut solenoid, and cracked 2 fuel lines. After approx 15 seconds of cranking it fired on the 2 cylinders, so I tightened the others, and it fired up and idled perfectly.

    More to come...
    Last edited: Nov 26, 2011

  12. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zrz0OvHd-9A

    Anyone know how to embed vids on this forum?

    A couple more pics:

    I addressed the glow plugs which are normally controlled by the ECU by installing a simple momentary push button switch on the dash. I didn't need glow plugs to fire it up the first time, so I doubt it will be getting used much.

    The other pic.. tells a lot. Since I ditched the automatic, and the electronic pump, I no longer needed the vast majority of the wires in my harness. I didn't count exactly, but I seem to remember it being over 60 wires previously, which is now down to 12. 3 for the speedo, 2 for reverse lamps, 1 for the 4wd indicator, 1 for water temp gauge, 1 for oil pressure, 1 for the fuel cut solenoid, 1 for the glow plug relay, and 2 for the tach pickup.

    Initially I was going to use the tach pickup within the pump for my tach signal, but I'm not sure my SGI-8 will process the signal from so many teeth on the governor gear. I decided to move the tach pickup to the now-unused crank angle sensor. I haven't quite got that part working yet, but the wires are there.
    2011-11-25_16-02-30_753.jpg 2011-11-25_15-33-25_69.jpg
    Last edited: Nov 27, 2011
  13. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    That's pretty much where I'm at now. I've re-purposed wires from the harness for the particular functions I need, removed the ECU and integrated everything into the chassis harness, and am waiting to get the tach working before I close up the engine harness with tape and conduit.

    My only other major concern is perhaps one of the biggest with the whole project: throttle linkage.

    The Denso 1KZ-T pump has a throttle lever that you push to get more power. This pump has a lever that you pull. This, and the cost of the parts ($130) makes the option of buying the factory throttle linkage less of an attractive one. I've seen pics of one engine with a 4m40 pump in which they modified the linkage to pull instead of push.. and that may be what I do eventually, but I'm going to try something first.

    It wouldn't be too difficult to build a bracket that mounts on the pump and allows the throttle cable to pull the lever. Thing is, the cable will be in the way of the oil filter for oil changes. I'm considering just making the cable easy to remove for oil changes.. and this may be the temporary setup. Perhaps long-term I modify the 1KZ-T linkage.. will see how this works out.

    The other thing I need to sort out is the lack of a brace under the back of the pump like both the 1KZ-T/TE, and 4M40 have. I assume they do this to remove stress from the timing gear housing. Fabricating a simple bracket wouldn't be too difficult, it's just pretty tight down there to get any fab work done. Also, consideration needs to be made to preserve the ability to adjust pump timing, so one of the anchor points needs to be easily adjustable. The guy I've conversed with that has this pump already has no bracket, and no problems.. but I'm not quite comfortable with that yet. All 3 of those engines had a bracket (just like my TDI and most other injection-pump-type diesels) for a reason, probably a good one.

    I plan on getting an EGT gauge soon, or at least before I start messing with the fuel screw. I'll fiddle with the timing by feel/sound until I get the EGT setup in.
  14. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    AND, it's already been brought up in an email, so I figure I'll post my thinking on the subject here.

    To avoid having to machine the mounting slots, I came up with the idea of just moving the timing gear in the case to get the offset I needed to put the pump in the ballpark. Thing is, the camshaft is driven by a timing belt that is driven by the pump timing gear. Any offset to that gear would also offset the timing belt and cam. The timing belt pulleys are both odd-numbered, and unless the timing gear had a multiple of that number of teeth, I wouldn't be able to offset the timing belt by a tooth. That, plus the fact that I'd have to open the timing case (something I wanted to avoid if at all possible), resulted in me just slotting the holes beyond stock.

    So far you guys are pretty much caught up on my progress. If you have any questions, let me know. I'll definitely be keeping this thread updated as I sort out the other small issues.. but so far I'm convinced this is a great option for the 1KZ-TE engine. For anyone considering a 1KZ-TE swap, it should be noted that you can buy the pump and throttle linkage for around the amount of money you'd get for a good used 1KZ-TE pump and ECU.. resulting in a mechanical pump 1KZ. That would require ditching the automatic, or using an aftermarket transmission controller (these are commonly used by Supra guys). That makes the whole swap far more attractive from my perspective.


    -Justin
  15. Landcruiser Power

    Landcruiser Power

    Messages:
    28
    Hey great write up, I have gone down the mechanical pump route to on my 1KZTE, best mod you can do for these engines in my view, you have so much scope in what you can do with them, really makes these engines come alive,Im running over 21 pound of boost Ive done over 60,000 km no problems, and since ive done it im getting over a hundred km more per tank, Just shows how well you can tune them,
  16. Tapage

    Tapage Club 4X4 Panamá SILVER Star

    Messages:
    21,203
    Location:
    Panamá
    outstanding write up and information thanks for sharing !
  17. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    If I end up with anything close to that mileage increase I'll be very happy. I always was a little disappointed by the fuel efficiency I could attain.. especially given what was openly touted as common with these engines in this chassis.

    And extra power wouldn't hurt either... :D
  18. Dougal

    Dougal

    Messages:
    4,423
    Location:
    Kiwiland
    What fuel economy are you getting? The 1KZ isn't fantastic for fuel economy, but it's certainly not bad.
  19. bloc

    bloc

    Messages:
    81
    Location:
    Austin, TX
    Stock with the automatic, about 21, in town or on the freeway, staying at 65 or below..

    Add the 5spd, 3.73s, and intercooler, and I average about 24mpg if I take it easy and stick to around 65mph.

    There are a couple people I trust seeing high 20s, and one or two I don't claiming 30 or more (imagine that...) . So if this puts me in the upper half of the 20s ill be excited. Especially because it effectively cost me nothing. (The pump swap anyway)
  20. Dougal

    Dougal

    Messages:
    4,423
    Location:
    Kiwiland
    US or IMP gallons?
    I don't own one myself, but the owners I know here are talking up to 11km/l (9 litres/100km or 31 UKMPG) for open road. Others that don't do much open road are around 8km/l (12.5l/100km or 23 UKMPG).

Share This Page